Air-entrained concrete is a type of concrete where the mixture has been altered to essentially make it even porous than it already is. By adding a chemical admixture or by using cement that was already air-entrained beforehand, this creates finished concrete that has more small holes and voids in its composition. The air-entrained concrete may also be finished at this stage with a steel trowel that is used to smooth over the surface and densify it. This part is optional and not always recommended for practical applications, but doing so can give the concrete a mirror-like appearance.
The primary reason concrete would need to be made even more porous is to create freeze-thaw resistance, in that the additional air inside the concrete will relieve pressure created by freezing temperatures and help protect the internal structure from getting weakened by the remaining water that will freeze inside the concrete. It is also used for deicer-scaling resistance, which it protects against salt concentrations and their pressures in the same way.
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